OCCUPY WALK USA

Ides of March walk 2013

Recall of Legislators and the Removal of Members of Congress from Office

Recall of Legislators and the Removal of Members of Congress from Office

http://www.senate.gov/CRSReports/crs-publish.cfm?pid=’0E%2C*PL%5B%3A%230%20%20%0A

Summary

Under the United States Constitution and congressional practice, Members of Congress may have their services ended prior to the normal expiration of their constitutionally established terms of office by their resignation or death, or by action of the house of Congress in which they are a Member by way of an “expulsion,” or by a finding that in accepting a subsequent “incompatible” public office, the Member would be deemed to have vacated his congressional seat.

Under Article I, Section 5, clause 2, of the Constitution, a Member of Congress may be removed from office before the normal expiration of his or her constitutional term by an “expulsion” from the Senate (if a Senator) or from the House of Representatives (if a Representative) upon a formal  vote on a resolution agreed to by two-thirds of the Members of that body present and voting.

While there are no specific grounds for an expulsion expressed in the Constitution, expulsion  actions in both the House and the Senate have generally concerned cases of perceived disloyalty  to theUnited States, or the conviction of a criminal statutory offense which involved abuse of one’s official position. Each house has broad authority as to the grounds, nature, timing, and procedure for an expulsion of a Member. However, policy considerations, as opposed to questions of authority, have appeared to restrain the Senate and House in the exercise of expulsion when it might be considered as infringing on the electoral process, such as when the electorate knew of the past misconduct under consideration and still elected or re-elected the Member.

As to removal by recall, the United States Constitution does not provide for nor authorize the recall of United States officers such as Senators, Representatives, or the President or Vice President, and thus no Member of Congress has ever been recalled in the history of the United States. The recall of Members was considered during the time of the drafting of the federal Constitution in 1787, but no such provisions were included in the final version sent to the states for ratification, and the specific drafting and ratifying debates indicate an express understanding of the framers and ratifiers that no right or power to recall a Senator or Representative in Congress exists under the Constitution. Although the Supreme Court has not needed to directly address the subject of recall of Members of Congress, other Supreme Court decisions, as well as the weight of other judicial and administrative decisions, rulings, and opinions, indicate that

(1) the right to remove a Member of Congress before the expiration of his or her constitutionally established term of office is one which resides exclusively in each house of Congress as expressly delegated in the expulsion clause of the United States Constitution, and

(2) the length and number of the terms of office for federal officials, established and agreed upon by the states in the Constitution creating that federal government, may not be unilaterally changed by an individual state, such as through the enactment of a recall provision or a term limitation for aUnited StatesSenator or Representative. Under Supreme Court constitutional interpretation, since individual states never had the original sovereign authority to unilaterally change the terms and conditions of service of federal officials agreed to and established in the Constitution, such a power could not be “reserved” under the Tenth Amendment. Even the dissenters in the Supreme Court decision on the Tenth Amendment and term limits, who would have found a “reserved” authority in the states regarding “qualifications” of Members of Congress, conceded that the exclusive authority to remove a sitting Member is delegated to each house in the expulsion clause of the Constitution, and that with respect to “a power of recall … the Framers denied to the States [such power] when they specified the terms of Members of Congress.”

This report has been and will be revised and updated as new decisional material or administrative opinions warrant. the weight of other judicial and administrative decisions, rulings, and opinions, indicate that

(1) the right to remove a Member of Congress before the expiration of his or her constitutionally established term of office is one which resides exclusively in each house of Congress as expressly delegated in the expulsion clause of the United States Constitution, and (2) the length and number  of the terms of office for federal officials, established and agreed upon by the states in the Constitution creating that federal government, may not be unilaterally changed by an individual state, such as through the enactment of a recall provision or a term limitation for aUnited StatesSenator or Representative. Under Supreme Court constitutional interpretation, since individual states never had the original sovereign authority to unilaterally change the terms and conditions of service of federal officials agreed to and established in the Constitution, such a power could not be “reserved” under the Tenth Amendment. Even the dissenters in the Supreme Court decision on

the Tenth Amendment and term limits, who would have found a “reserved” authority in the states regarding “qualifications” of Members of Congress, conceded that the exclusive authority to remove a sitting Member is delegated to each house in the expulsion clause of the Constitution,  and that with respect to “a power of recall … the Framers denied to the States [such power] when they specified the terms of Members of Congress.”

This report has been and will be revised and updated as new decisional material or administrative opinions warrant.

Check out this “do it yourself” recall petition: http://www.petition2congress.com/2042/congressional-recall/

Also see this website for information: http://www.change.org/start-a-petition?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=GST_USER_GEOT2_SCHT1_PERT1

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April 6, 2012 - Posted by | This is why we walk

1 Comment »

  1. […] Recall of Legislators and the Removal of Members of Congress from Office (occupywalkusa.org) Share this:ShareEmailLike this:LikeBe the first to like this post. Tags: Andrew Napolitano, Big government, Commerce Clause, Congress, Constitution, Supreme Court, United States Congress, United States Constitution Comments (0) Trackbacks (0) Leave a comment Trackback […]

    Pingback by (“What if enough is enough? What do we do about it? What if it’s too late?”) What If the Government Rejects the Constitution? Judge Andrew Napolitano… « CITIZEN.BLOGGER.1984+ GUNNY.G BLOG.EMAIL | April 12, 2012 | Reply


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